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V1G: A Maintainer of Power Grid Stability?

VAMK´s Fesio researcher Mr Jukka Hautala has written an article "V1G: A Maintainer of Power Grid Stability?” and the whole article can be read from .  Below a short summary of it.

V1G (vehicle-to-grid) refers to a system where the charging power of electric vehicles is adjusted according to the needs of the power grid, without energy flowing back from the vehicle to the grid. This method is part of smart charging, which aims to maintain the balance and stability of the power grid. With V1G, energy flows in only one direction, unlike the V2G system, where energy can flow in both directions, from the car to the grid and vice versa.

Smart charging can help balance the power grid in various ways. For example, by charging an electric vehicle when the market electricity price is low, the user can reduce their energy costs. At the same time, this charging practice helps manage the grid load because it encourages consumption when electricity is plentiful and cheap. This reduces the strain on the grid caused by peak loads and helps maintain a balance between consumption and production.

However, it is important to note that market price-based charging does not solve all power grid problems. Especially in situations where there are disturbances in the power grid, additional measures are needed. In such situations, reserve markets can be utilized, where small consumers and producers can participate in grid stabilization through virtual power plants. Reserve markets enable a quick response to the needs of the power grid and help ensure that sufficient electricity is available in all situations.

In Finland, the number of electric vehicles is rapidly increasing, and this development offers new opportunities for maintaining the stability of the power grid. Smart charging of electric vehicles can be a significant factor in grid management in the future, especially considering the large capacity of electric vehicle batteries. As more and more electric vehicles are connected to smart charging systems, their combined impact on grid balance can be substantial. However, this requires investments in both technological infrastructure and raising user awareness of the benefits of smart charging.

In summary, V1G and smart charging offer effective means of maintaining power grid stability, especially as the number of electric vehicles grows. While market price-based charging helps balance the grid in normal situations, additional measures such as utilizing reserve markets are needed in disturbance situations. In the future, the importance of smart charging systems will increase as the use of electric vehicles becomes more widespread, and their potential for grid balancing is fully realized.

This review and the translation of the original article was written by Principal lecturer Lotta Saarikoski, VAMK´s Fesio project worker

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